Factors affecting effective ventilation during newborn resuscitation: a qualitative study among midwives in rural Tanzania

R. Moshiro, H. L. Ersdal, P. Mdoe, H. L. Kidanto, C. Mbekenga

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

38 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Intrapartum-related hypoxia accounts for 30% of neonatal deaths in Tanzania. This has led to the introduction and scaling-up of the Helping Babies Breathe (HBB) programme, which is a simulation-based learning programme in newborn resuscitation skills. Studies have documented ineffective ventilation of non-breathing newborns and the inability to follow the HBB algorithm among providers. Objective: This study aimed at exploring barriers and facilitators to effective bag mask ventilation, an essential component of the HBB algorithm, during actual newborn resuscitation in rural Tanzania. Methods: Eight midwives, each with more than one year’s working experience in the labour ward, were interviewed individually at Haydom Lutheran Hospital, Tanzania. The audio recordings were transcribed and translated into English and analysed using qualitative content analysis. Results: Midwives reported the ability to monitor labour properly, preparing resuscitation equipment before delivery, teamwork and frequent ventilation training as the most effective factors in improving actual ventilation practices and promoting the survival of newborns. They thought that their anxiety and fear due to stress of ventilating a non-breathing baby often led to poor resuscitation performance. Additionally, they experienced difficulties assessing the baby’s condition and providing appropriate clinical responses to initial interventions at birth; hence, further necessary actions and timely initiation of ventilation were delayed. Conclusions: Efforts should be focused on improving labour monitoring, birth preparedness and accurate assessment immediately after birth, to decrease intrapartum-related hypoxia. Midwives should be well prepared to treat a non-breathing baby through high-quality and frequent simulation training with an emphasis on teamwork training.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1423862
JournalGlobal Health Action
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2018


  • Helping Babies Breathe
  • barriers bag mask ventilation
  • facilitators bag mask ventilation
  • qualitative Tanzania
  • simulation training


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