Factors associated with HIV testing among pregnant women in Rwanda: A nationwide cross-sectional survey

Lilian Nuwabaine, Joseph Kawuki, Angella Namulema, John Baptist Asiimwe, Quraish Sserwanja, Ghislaine Gatasi, Elorm Donkor

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing during pregnancy is crucial for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV, through aiding prompt treatment, care, and support. However, few studies have explored HIV testing among pregnant women in Rwanda. This study, therefore, aimed to determine the prevalence and associated factors of HIV testing among pregnant women in Rwanda. We used secondary data from the 2020 Rwanda Demographic and Health Survey (RDHS), comprising 870 pregnant women. Multistage stratified sampling was used by the RDHS team to select participants. We conducted bivariable and multivariable logistic regression to explore factors associated with HIV testing using SPSS (version 25). Of the 870 pregnant women, 94.0% had tested for HIV during their current pregnancy. Younger age (24–34 years), not working, large household size, multiple sex partners, as well as secondary, primary, and no education were associated with higher odds of HIV testing compared to their respective counterparts. However, being unmarried, belonging to the western region, having not visited a health facility, and not having comprehensive HIV knowledge were associated with lower odds of HIV testing. A high proportion of pregnant women had tested for HIV. The study revealed that individual-level factors had the greatest influence on HIV testing in pregnancy, with a few household-level factors showing significance. There is a need for maternal health stakeholders to design and develop HIV testing programs that are region-sensitive. These programs should target older, more educated, working, and unmarried women with limited HIV knowledge.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0002728
JournalPLOS Global Public Health
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2024


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