Understanding the interplay between bacterial pathogens and antimicrobials is a key to realize the control over infections causing morbidity and mortality. An important current issue of contemporary medicine and microbiology is the search for new strategies for adequate therapy of infectious diseases associated with rapidly emerging multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens. Recently, a great deal of progress has been made in the field of nanobiotechnology towards the development of various nanoantimicrobials (NAMs) as novel therapeutic solution. Current microbiological studies, employing either synthetic antibiotics or natural antimicrobial, have demonstrated the ability of NAMs to tackle the issue of MDR by reverting the mechanisms of resistance. The present review critically discusses the various factors that can contribute to modulate the effects of NAMs on microbes. It includes essential features of NAMs including but not limited to composition, surface charge, loading capacity, size, hydrophobicity/philicity, controlled release and functionalization. In contrast, how microbial structural differences, biofilm formation, persister cells and intracellular pathogens contribute towards sensitivity or resistance towards antimicrobials is comprehensively analysed. These multilateral factors should be considered earnestly in order to make NAMs a successful alternative of the conventional antibiotics.
- mechanism of action
- multidrug resistance