Fears and barriers: problems in breast cancer diagnosis and treatment in Pakistan

Sidra Saeed, Muhammad Asim, Malik Muhammad Sohail

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

34 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Women in Pakistan lack appropriate awareness about diagnosis and treatment for breast cancer due to a range of multifaceted barriers. There is a dearth of literature examining the socio-cultural factors that inhibit women from breast cancer screening, diagnosis and treatment in Punjab, Pakistan. Addressing this gap, this qualitative study sought to identify and explore the barriers that hinder women from seeking timely screening and treatment. Methods: In this process 45 women (age = 18–50 years) with breast cancer were purposively sampled and interviewed from the Punjab Institute of Nuclear Medicine (PINUM) hospital, Faisalabad, Pakistan. Results: An inductive approach was used to analyze the data which resulted in the emergence of eight subthemes under the umbrella of three major themes that delineate individual, socio-cultural and structural barriers to seek screening and treatment of breast cancer in Punjab. Individual barriers included lack of awareness, hesitance in accepting social support, and spiritual healing. The identified socio-cultural factors included feminine sensitivity, stigmatization, and aversion to male doctors. Lack of financial resources and apathetic medical services were structural barriers that hinder screening and treatment. Conclusions: These barriers can be addressed through raising awareness and community mobilization about breast-self exam and treatment. The healthcare system should also pay attention to socio-psychological and cultural factors impeding women's access to available health facilities.

Original languageEnglish
Article number151
JournalBMC Women's Health
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2021


  • Breast cancer
  • Feminine sensitivity
  • Inadequate financial resources
  • Pakistan
  • Social support
  • Stigmatization


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