For SLN lymph node biopsy (SLNB), SLN mapping has become a standard of care procedure that can accurately locate the micrometastases disseminated from primary tumor sites to the regional lymph nodes. The broad array of SLN mapping has prompted the development of a wide range of SLN tracers, rationally designed for noninvasive and high-resolution imaging of SLNs. At present, conventional SLN imaging probes (blue dyes, radiocolloids, and few other small-molecular dyes), although serving the clinical needs, are often associated with major issues such as insufficient accumulation in SLN, short retention time, staining of the surgical field, and other adverse side effects. In a recent advancement, newly designed fluorescent nanoprobes are equipped with novel features that could be of high interest in SLN mapping such as (i) a unique niche that is not met by any other conventional SLN probes, (ii) their adoptable synthesis method, and (ii) excellent sensitivity facilitating high resolution SLN mapping. Most importantly, lots of effort has been devoted for translating the fluorescent nanoprobes into a clinical setup and also imparting the multimodal imaging abilities of nanoprobes for the excellent diagnosis of life-threatening diseases such as cancer. In this review, we will provide a detailed roadmap of the progress of a wide variety of current fluorescent molecular probes and emphasize the future of nanomaterial-based single/multimodal imaging probes that have true potential translation abilities for SLN mapping.