Frequency, clinical characteristics and outcome of diabetic ketoacidosis in children with type-1 diabetes at a tertiary care hospital

Saira Waqar Lone, Emad Uddin Siddiqui, Fareeduddin Muhammed, Irum Atta, Mohsina Noor Ibrahim, Jamal Raza

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29 Citations (Scopus)


Objective: To observe the frequency, demographic data and outcome of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in children with established type 1 diabetes and newly diagnosed diabetes at a tertiary care hospital. Methods: The case record review was done of children admitted with the diagnosis of DKA at The National Institute of Child Health, Karachi from 1st June 2008 till 31st May 2009. All records with the diagnosis of DKA were reviewed and those children with only hyperglycaemia, or who did not fulfill the criteria of DKA were excluded. The demographic data and laboratory investigations which included blood sugar monitoring, arterial blood gases, urine analysis especially for ketones, serum electrolytes, complete blood count and blood culture were reviewed. The previous numbers of admissions in children with established DKA were also noted with reasons. The duration of symptoms and fluids required, time of recovery, complications, and outcome were noted and compared between those with established diabetes and children with newly diagnosed diabetes. Data was entered and analyzed on SPSS version 15. Results: Out of 124 case records, 117 were included which fulfilled the criteria of DKA. A large number, 65 (55.5%) children were in the > 10 years age group with a female predominance. Out of 117 children 50 (42.7%) had established Type 1 diabetes and 67 (57.2 %) children had newly diagnosed diabetes. The commonest presenting complaints in both groups were respiratory distress (87.1%) and vomiting (77.7%). The symptoms of polyuria, polydipsia and nocturia were more among the newly diagnosed children as compared to those with established diabetes with a significant p value <0.001. The comparison of clinical features and laboratory investigations of the two groups showed no difference except that those children with established diabetes improved earlier, required lesser duration of intravenous fluids and their insulin was changed to subcutaneous in less time compared with newly diagnosed children. (p<0.001). The commonest complication in both groups was hypoglycaemia followed by hyponatraemia, more in newly diagnosed diabetic children. Conclusion: These soaring numbers are just from one center, highlighting the issue of this much neglected disease in our country. More studies on a larger scale are needed to assess the prevalence/incidence in our children and also more emphasis with educational programmes on prevention of recurrent attacks of DKA.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)725-729
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 2010


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