Functional outcome of anorectal malformations and associated anomalies in era of Krickenbeck classification

Saqib Hamid Qazi, Ahmad Vaqas Faruque, Muhammad Arif Mateen Khan, Umama Saleem

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)


Objective: To describe the management and functional outcome of anorectal malformations and associated anomalies according to Krickenbeck classification. Study Design: Case series. Place and Duration of Study: The Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, from January 2002 to December 2012. Methodology: Anorectal anomalies were classified according to Krickenbeck classification. Data was collected and proforma used regarding the primary disease associated anomalies, its management and functional outcome, according to Krickenbeck classification. Cases included were: All those children with imperforate anus managed during the study period. Qualitative variables like gender and functional outcome were reported as frequencies and percentages. Quantitative variables like age were reported as medians with interquartile ranges. Results: There were 84 children in study group. Most common associated anomaly was cardiac (38%), followed by urological anomaly (33%). All children were treated by Posterior Sagittal Anorectoplasty (PSARP). Fistula was present in 64 out of 84 (76%) cases. The most common fistula was rectourethral (33%), followed by recto vestibular (31%). According to Krickenbeck classification, continence was achieved in 62% children; however 27% children were constipated, followed by 12% children having fecal soiling. Conclusion: Functional outcome of anorectal malformation depends upon severity of disease. A thorough evaluation of all infants with ARM should be done with particular focus on cardiovascular (38%) and genitourinary abnormalities (33%).

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)204-207
Number of pages4
JournalJournal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons--Pakistan : JCPSP
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2016


  • Anorectal malformation
  • Functional outcome
  • Krickenbeck classification


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