Being sessile in nature plants face various environmental stresses. These stresses badly affect the physiological, morphological, biochemical, and molecular events of plants and hence result in yield loss. Genes, antioxidant enzymes, ion transporters, and hormone regulation are the various defense mechanisms utilized by the plants to encounter various environmental stresses such as drought, salinity, high temperature, acidic soil, and pathogen attack. Generally, abiotic factors affect plant growth in various ways. In agriculture, the genome of plants under stress tolerance can be identified using the imperative roles of biotechnological techniques for physiological and morphological characteristics. This chapter summarizes the damage caused by biotic and abiotic stress to plants at physiological and molecular levels. It highlights the opportunities to increase stress tolerance by using genetic engineering techniques to counteract this damage. This chapter will assist agronomists, physiologists, and molecular biologists in approaching research strategies and developing a broad range of stress-resistant biotic and abiotic crops. In conclusion, how susceptible plants can survive under stressful conditions and increase crop production is summarized.
|Title of host publication||Phytohormones and Stress Responsive Secondary Metabolites|
|Number of pages||10|
|Publication status||Published - 1 Jan 2023|
- Biotic and abiotic stress