GRADE-ADOLOPMENT of hyperthyroidism treatment guidelines for a Pakistani context

Russell Seth Martins, Sarah Nadeem, Abeer Aziz, Sajjan Raja, Alina Pervez, Najmul Islam, Asma Ahmed, Aisha Sheikh, Saira Furqan, Nanik Ram, Azra Rizwan, Nashia Ali Rizvi, Mohsin Ali Mustafa, Salima Saleem Aamdani, Bushra Ayub, Muhammad Qamar Masood

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Introduction: The prevalence of hyperthyroidism in Pakistan is 2.9%, which is two times higher than in the United States. Most high-quality hyperthyroidism clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) used internationally originate from high-income countries in the West. Local CPGs in Pakistan are not backed by transparent methodologies. We aimed to produce comprehensive, high-quality CPGs for the management of hyperthyroidism in Pakistan. Methods: We employed the GRADE-ADOLOPMENT approach utilizing the 2016 American Thyroid Association Guidelines for Diagnosis and Management of Hyperthyroidism and Other Causes of Thyrotoxicosis as the source CPG. Recommendations from the source guideline were either adopted as is, excluded, or adapted according to our local context. Results: The source guideline included a total of 124 recommendations, out of which 71 were adopted and 49 were excluded. 4 recommendations were carried forward for adaptation via the ETD process, with modifications being made to 2 of these. The first addressed the need for liver function tests (LFTs) amongst patients experiencing symptoms of hepatotoxicity while being treated with anti-thyroid drugs (ATDs). The second pertained to thyroid status testing post-treatment by radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy for Graves’ Disease (GD). Both adaptations centered around the judicious use of laboratory investigations to reduce costs of hyperthyroidism management. Conclusion: Our newly developed hyperthyroidism CPGs for Pakistan contain two context-specific modifications that prioritize patients’ finances during the course of hyperthyroidism management and to limit the overuse of laboratory testing in a resource-constrained setting. Future research must investigate the cost-effectiveness and risk-benefit ratio of these modified recommendations.

Original languageEnglish
Article number41
JournalBMC Endocrine Disorders
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2024


  • Adolopment
  • Guidelines
  • LMIC
  • Pakistan
  • Thyroid


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