Objective: Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis (GPA) is an autoimmune, multi-system, small and medium vessel vasculitis with granulomatous inflammation. Aim of this study was to assess the clinical and radiological presentations of patients with GPA amongst the Pakistani population. It is a single centre retrospective single observation study. Results: Study was conducted at the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi with records were reviewed from January 2000 to December 2017. Definitive diagnosis was made using a combination of serological anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) testing along with the clinical and radiological presentation. A total of 51 patients met the diagnostic criteria in the time frame of the study. There were 23 males and 28 females with mean age of 44.0 ± 17.8 years on presentation. Arthritis was the most common symptom present in 41.2% of the cases followed by cough in 32.0%. Sixteen patients showed pulmonary infiltrates on chest X-ray. C-ANCA was positive in all of the patients compared with 21.6% p-ANCA positivity. A total of 13 biopsies were done. The median Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score was 12. We report a 17.6% mortality rate with 5 deaths occurring due to respiratory failure. GPA is a diagnostic challenge leading to late diagnosis which can contribute to significant morbidity and mortality specially in the Third World.
- Granulomatosis with polyangiitis