Health care costs associated with primary care physicians versus nurse practitioners and physician assistants

Suja S. Rajan, Julia M. Akeroyd, Sarah T. Ahmed, David J. Ramsey, Christie M. Ballantyne, Laura A. Petersen, Salim S. Virani

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


Background:Significant primary care provider (PCP) shortage exists in the United States. Expanding the scope of practice for nurse practitioners (NPs) and physician assistants (PAs) can help alleviate this shortage. The Department of Veterans' Affairs (VA) has been a pioneer in expanding the role of NPs and PAs in primary caregiving.Purpose:This study evaluated the health care costs associated with VA patients cared for by NPs and PAs versus primary care physicians (physicians).Methods:A retrospective data analysis using two separate cohorts of VA patients, one with diabetes and the other with cardiovascular disease (CVD), was performed. The associations between PCP type and health care costs were analyzed using ordinary least square regressions with logarithmically transformed costs.Results:The analyses estimated 12% to 13% (US dollars [USD] 2,626) and 4% to 5% (USD 924) higher costs for patients assigned to physicians as compared with those assigned to NPs and PAs, after adjusting for baseline patient sociodemographics and disease burden, in the diabetes and CVD cohort, respectively. Given the average patient population size of a VA medical center, these cost differences amount to a total difference of USD 14 million/year per center and USD 5 million/year per center for diabetic and CVD patients, respectively.Implications for practice:This study highlights the potential cost savings associated with primary caregiving by NPs and PAs. In light of the PCP shortage, the study supports increased involvement of NPs and PAs in primary caregiving. Future studies examining the reasons for these cost differences by provider type are required to provide more scientific evidence for regulatory decision making in this area.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)967-974
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 30 Nov 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • Cardiovascular disease
  • diabetes
  • health care costs
  • nurse practitioners
  • physician assistants
  • physicians


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