Health-related quality of life in adult CHD surgical patients in a low middle-income country: A mixed-methods study

Laila A. Ladak, Robyn Gallagher, Babar S. Hasan, Khadija Awais, Ahmed Abdullah, Janice Gullick

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1 Citation (Scopus)


Background and objectives: This mixed-methods study aimed to assess health-related quality of life in young adults with CHD following surgery in a low middle-income country, Pakistan. Despite the knowledge that geographic, cultural and socio-economic factors may shape the way health and illness is experienced and managed and consequently determine a person's health-related quality of life, few health-related quality of life studies are conducted in low middle-income countries. This deficit is pronounced in CHD, so there is little guidance for patient care.Methods: The study utilised concurrent, mixed methods. Adults with CHD (n = 59) completed health-related quality of life surveys (PedsQLTM 4.0 Generic Core Scale, PedsQLTM Cognitive Functioning Scale and PedsQLTM 3.0 Cardiac Module). Semi-structured interview data were collected from a nested sub-sample of 17 participants and analysed using qualitative content analysis, guided by the revised Wilson-Cleary model of health-related quality of life.Results: The lowest health-related quality of life domain was emotional with the mean score (71.61 ± 20.6), followed by physical (78.81 ± 21.18) and heart problem (79.41 ± 18.05). There was no statistical difference in general or cardiac-specific health-related quality of life between mild, moderate or complex CHD. Qualitative findings suggested low health-related quality of life arose from a reduced capacity to contribute to family life including family income and gender. A sense of reduced marriageability and fear of dependency were important socio-cultural considerations.Conclusions: CHD surgical patients in this low-income country experience poor health-related quality of life, and contributing factors differ to those reported for high-income countries. Socio-cultural understandings should underpin assessment, management and care-partnering with young adults with CHD following surgical correction.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1126-1137
Number of pages12
JournalCardiology in the Young
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 2020


  • Adult
  • CHD
  • health-related quality of life
  • low middle-income country
  • mixed-methods research
  • surgery


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