Health-related quality of life in adults with tetralogy of Fallot repair: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Mahim Malik, Zaiba Shafik Dawood, Mahin Janjua, Sardar Shahmir Babar Chauhan, Laila Akbar Ladak

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)


Background: With the advancement in diagnostics and clinical management, patients with Tetralogy of Fallot (ToF) are surviving till adulthood. Hence, assessing the impact of ToF repair on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of these patients is becoming increasingly important. The objective of this paper is to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the HRQOL in patients who have undergone ToF repair. Methods: A systematic search was conducted using PubMed, CINAHL, Medline and Web of Science databases. Studies that compared the HRQOL of adult patients (mean age ≥ 18 years) who had previously undergone ToF repair with healthy controls were included. Analysis was done via Revman V5.3 using a random effects model. Results: The 16 studies (15 using SF-36) included in the meta-analysis, comprised 1818 patients and 50,265 healthy controls. There was a higher proportion of males (59%). The mean ages at surgery and at HRQOL assessment were 5.37 years and 30.3 years, respectively. We found that repaired ToF patients had a statistically significantly lower score in the physical component summary (SMD = − 0.92 CI = − 1.54, − 0.30) and physical functioning (SMD = − 0.27 CI = − 0.50, − 0.03) compared to healthy controls. However, these patients had statistically significantly higher scores in the bodily pain domain (SMD = 0.35 CI = 0.12, 0.58) and social functioning (SMD = 0.23 CI = 0.01, 0.46), while there was no significant difference in other domains. Conclusion: Overall, physical domain of HRQOL was statistically significantly lower in repaired ToF patients compared to healthy controls. However, repaired ToF patients scored significantly higher on bodily pain and Social Functioning. There was additionally no difference in the HRQOL between the two groups in other domains of HRQOL.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2715-2725
Number of pages11
JournalQuality of Life Research
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2021


  • Adults
  • Health-related quality of life
  • Surgery
  • Tetralogy of Fallot


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