Hodgkin lymphoma in Pakistan: An analysis of subtypes and their correlation with epstein barr virus

Samia Fatima, Rashida Ahmed, Arsalan Ahmed

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16 Citations (Scopus)


The epidemiology of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) shows a wide geographic variation with regard to age, gender, histological subtypes and their association with Epstein-Barr virus. The proportion of EBV positive cases appears higher in developing than in developed countries. EBV is a common infection in Pakistan due to poor socioeconomic conditions, but reports regarding HL subtypes have been rather selective. Our aims were to establish the relative frequencies of the five subtypes of Hodgkin lymphoma, to determine their associations with Epstein-Barr virus, and finally to establish whether such association follows patterns seen in developing or developed countries. Among 100 cases, the male: female ratio was 4.5:1, with an age range of 4-82 years and an average of 26.6 years. Similar to the subtype distribution in developing countries, mixed cellularity was the commonest 57%, followed by nodular sclerosis 35%, lymphocyte rich 6% and nodular lymphocyte predominant 2 %. EBV-LMP1 staining was demonstrated in 41/57 (71%) of the mixed cellularity and the 19/35 (54.2%) of nodular sclerosis subtypes. All 6 cases of lymphocyte rich and 2 cases of nodular lymphocyte predominant were negative for EBV-LMP 1. Speculation about prognostic effects of EBV infection on the course of HL are tempting. Thus the EBV-positive HL could in the future prove to be an excellent candidate for targeted cellular immunotherapy.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1385-1388
Number of pages4
JournalAsian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2011


  • Epstein-Barr virus
  • Hodgkin lymphoma
  • Latent membrane protein-1 (LMP-1)


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