Hospital Resources and Practice Patterns for Congenital Cardiac Surgery in Pakistan: A Nationwide Status Report

Mahim Akmal Malik, Asad Saulat Fatimi, Russell Seth Martins, Muneer Amanullah, Anjum Jalal

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective: Low- and middle-income countries such as Pakistan bear the brunt of the global burden of congenital heart disease (CHD), This nationwide study assessed hospital resources and surgical practice patterns pertaining to CHD surgery across Pakistan. Methods: A nationwide hospital facility survey was conducted, targeting all health centers performing CHD surgery in Pakistan. Descriptive data analysis was performed, with categorical variables being presented as frequencies and percentages and continuous variables being reported as means and standard deviations. Results: Seventeen surgeons across 17 different centers participated in the study. Eight of 17 (47%) surgeons were under 45 years of age, while the rest were older than 45 years. More respondents were employed at public/government-owned hospitals (11/17, 65%) and at specialized cardiac centers (13/17, 76%), with a majority of centers reported as having a special ICU designated for congenital cardiac patients (11/17, 65%). With regard to operative volume, 7 of 17 (41%) centers reported more than 350 cases per year, with 7 of 17 reported >10 neonatal cases per year (6/12, 50%). Only one center reported national and international collaborations for research, most centers carrying out less than five research projects in a year. Conclusion: This study has identified key areas that require the attention of local administrative bodies as well as international organizations and societies. The existing centers in Pakistan are unable to meet the demands of the population, leaving a large number of untreated patients, especially for neonatal lesions.

Original languageEnglish
JournalWorld journal for pediatric & congenital heart surgery
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2024
Externally publishedYes


  • congenital cardiac disease
  • hospital resources
  • practice patterns
  • status report


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