Human papilloma virus correlates of high grade cervical dysplasia in HIV-infected women in Mombasa, Kenya: A cross-sectional analysis

Sonia Menon, Stanley Luchters, Rodolfo Rossi, Steven Callens, Mandaliya Kishor, Johannes Bogers, Davy Vanden Broeck

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Women living with HIV are at increased risk to be co-infected with HPV, persistent high-risk (HR) human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and increased HR HPV viral load, which make them more at risk for cervical cancer. Despite their inherent vulnerability, there is a scarcity of data on potential high risk (pHR) and HR HPV genotypes in HIV- infected women with cervical dysplasia and HPV-type specific viral load in this population in Sub Saharan Africa. The aim of this analysis of HIV-infected women was to explore the virological correlates of high-grade cervical dysplasia (CIN 2+) in HIV-infected women, thereby profiling HPV genotypes. Method: This analysis assesses baseline data obtained from a cohort study of 74 HIV-infected women with abnormal cytology attending a Comprehensive Care Centre for patients with HIV infection in Mombasa, Kenya. Quantitative real-time PCR was used for HPV typing and viral load. Results: CIN 2 was observed in 16% (12/74) of women, CIN 3 in 23% (17/74), and, invasive cervical carcinoma (ICC) in 1% (1/74) of women. In women with CIN 3+, HPV 16 (44%), HPV 56 (33%), HPV 33 and 53 (HPV 53 (28%) were the most prevalent genotypes. HPV 53 was observed as a stand-alone HPV in one woman with ICC. A multivariate logistic regression adjusting for age, CD4 count and HPV co-infections suggested the presence of HPV 31 as a predictor of CIN 2+ (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]:4.9; p = 0.05; 95% (Confidence Interval) [CI]:1.03-22.5). Women with CIN2+ had a significantly higher viral log mean of HPV 16, (11.2 copies/ 10,000 cells; 95% CI: 9.0-13.4) than with CIN 1. Conclusion: The high prevalence of HPV 53 in CIN 3 and as a stand-alone genotype in the patient with invasive cervical cancer warrants that its clinical significance be further revisited among HIV-infected women. HPV 31, along with elevated means of HPV 16 viral load were predictors of CIN 2 +.

Original languageEnglish
Article number54
JournalVirology Journal
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 27 Mar 2018
Externally publishedYes


  • CIN 2 +
  • Co-infections
  • HPV viral load
  • Human papilloma virus
  • Kenya
  • Pairings
  • Potentially high risk/high-risk HPV genotypes


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