Background: Hybrid peripheral nerve sheath tumors (PNSTs) have been recognized recently and were first included in the 4th edition of World Health Organization (WHO) Classification of Tumors of Soft tissue and Bone, published in 2013. These tumors show combined features of more than one type of conventional benign peripheral nerve sheath tumors. The most common combinations are those of schwannoma/perineurioma followed by combinations of neurofibroma/schwannoma and neurofibroma/perineurioma. A detailed literature review of published cases is presented. We have discussed the types and etiology, epidemiology and sites of localization, gross and microscopic appearances and immunohistochemical features of hybrid PNSTs and association of these tumors with tumor syndromes. Case presentation: We have included five cases which were diagnosed in our department as we believe that publication of these new cases is relevant for the improved understanding of these specific tumors. Four of our five patients were males, mean age was 24 years. There was wide variation in the location of these tumors. Mean size of excised tumors was 5.5 cms in the greatest dimensions. Three out of five cases represented hybrid schwannoma/perineurioma histologically. No significant nuclear atypia, mitotic activity or necrosis seen. All five cases were completely excised. All five patients are alive and well at the time of writing with no recurrence. Conclusion: Hybrid PNSTs are distinct tumors and are usually benign. However, rare case reports have described local recurrence and at least two recent case reports have described malignant transformation in these tumors. Further studies on large number of cases are required to determine the exact pathogenetic basis of these tumors.
- Hybrid PNST