Hydropericardium syndrome in Pakistan: A review

A. A. Khan, A. N. Sabri, M. K. Mansoor, I. Hussain

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

17 Citations (Scopus)


Hydropericardium syndrome has caused huge economic losses to the poultry industry in Pakistan. The disease was reported for the first time in 1987 at Angara Goth, a broiler producing area near Karachi and given the name Angara disease. The disease is prevalent in 3-7 week old broilers and characterized by its sudden onset, accumulation of a jelly like fluid in the pericardial sac, inflamed liver with basophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies, congested kidneys and up to 70% mortality rates. Fowl adenovirus 4 has been found to be the causative agent. In Pakistan, the status of scientific research on various aspects of hydropericardium syndrome is quite unsatisfactory. There is an extensive use of formalin inactivated liver homogenate vaccines for the prevention and control of disease. Moreover, the gross lesions seen in post mortem examination are only the criteria for the clinical diagnosis of disease. Keeping in view the economic significance of hydropericardium syndrome, the need for additional scientific research on proper diagnosis and control of disease is suggested.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)647-654+716+719-720+723+727+731
JournalWorld's Poultry Science Journal
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2005
Externally publishedYes


  • Adenovirus
  • Angara disease
  • Formalin
  • Homogenate
  • Hydropericardium
  • Karachi
  • Pakistan
  • Vaccine


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