Impact of immune status on the clinical characteristics, treatment outcomes and mortality of pulmonary nocardiosis: A retrospective analysis in a tertiary care hospital from a low to middle-income country

Syed Muhammad Zubair, Muhammad Mustansir Mehdi Khan, Yasmin Rahim, Hamza Ibad, Muhammad Irfan

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Nocardiosis is an opportunistic infection that primarily targets the immunosuppressed. We investigate the differences in demographics and characteristics between immunosuppressed and immunocompetent patients with nocardiosis in a tertiary care hospital in Pakistan. Retrospective records were reviewed for patients diagnosed with pulmonary nocardiosis between 2010 and 2020. Immunosuppressed individuals were identified as those with autoimmune diseases, hematologic diseases and malignancies, HIV, immunosuppressant therapy, etc. Data collected included basic demographics, comorbid conditions, medication history, clinical presentation, radiological and microbiological data, and nocardiosis outcomes and complications. A total of 66 patients with nocardiosis were included in this study out of which 48 were immunosuppressed while 18 were immunocompetent. Both groups were compared for a number of variables including patient characteristics, underlying conditions, radiological findings, treatment regimen and outcomes. Immunosuppressed individuals were younger, and had higher rates of diabetes, chronic renal disease, chronic liver disease, higher platelet counts, surgical intervention, and longer hospital stays. Fever, dyspnea, and sputum production were the most common presentations. Nocardia asteroides was found to be the most common species of Nocardia overall. Nocardiosis presents differently in patients with immunosuppressed and immunocompetent patients consistent with previous studies. Nocardiosis should be considered in any patient presenting with treatment-resistant pulmonary or neurological symptoms

Original languageUndefined/Unknown
JournalSection of Pulmonary & Critical Care
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2023

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