Impact of Residential Social Deprivation on Prediction of Heart Failure in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: External Validation and Recalibration of the WATCH-DM Score Using Real World Data

Salil V. Deo, Sadeer Al-Kindi, Issam Motairek, David McAllister, Anoop S.V. Shah, Yakov E. Elgudin, Eiran Z. Gorodeski, Salim Virani, Mark C. Petrie, Sanjay Rajagopalan, Naveed Sattar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Patients with type 2 diabetes are at risk of heart failure hospitalization. As social determinants of health are rarely included in risk models, we validated and recalibrated the WATCH-DM score in a diverse patient-group using their social deprivation index (SDI). METHODS: We identified US Veterans with type 2 diabetes without heart failure that received outpatient care during 2010 at Veterans Affairs medical centers nationwide, linked them to their SDI using residential ZIP codes and grouped them as SDI <20%, 21% to 40%, 41% to 60%, 61% to 80%, and >80% (higher values represent increased deprivation). Accounting for all-cause mortality, we obtained the incidence for heart failure hospitalization at 5 years follow-up; overall and in each SDI group. We evaluated the WATCH-DM score using the C statistic, the Greenwood Nam D'Agostino test χ2test and calibration plots and further recalibrated the WATCH-DM score for each SDI group using a statistical correction factor. RESULTS: In 1 065 691 studied patients (mean age 67 years, 25% Black and 6% Hispanic patients), the 5-year incidence of heart failure hospitalization was 5.39%. In SDI group 1 (least deprived) and 5 (most deprived), the 5-year heart failure hospitalization was 3.18% and 11%, respectively. The score C statistic was 0.62; WATCH-DM systematically overestimated heart failure risk in SDI groups 1 to 2 (expected/observed ratios, 1.38 and 1.36, respectively) and underestimated the heart failure risk in groups 4 to 5 (expected/observed ratios, 0.95 and 0.80, respectively). Graphical evaluation demonstrated that the recalibration of WATCH-DM using an SDI group-based correction factor improved predictive capabilities as supported by reduction in the χ2test results (801-27 in SDI groups I; 623-23 in SDI group V). CONCLUSIONS: Including social determinants of health to recalibrate the WATCH-DM score improved risk prediction highlighting the importance of including social determinants in future clinical risk prediction models.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)E010166
JournalCirculation: Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes
Volume17
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2024

Keywords

  • calibration
  • cardiovascular disease
  • heart failure
  • myocardial infarction
  • social deprivation

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