Indoor air pollution (PM2.5) due to secondhand smoke in selected hospitality and entertainment venues of Karachi, Pakistan

Asaad Ahmed Nafees, Tahir Taj, Muhammad Masood Kadir, Zafar Fatmi, Kiyoung Lee, Nalini Sathiakumar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

19 Citations (Scopus)


Objective: To determine particulate matter smaller than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) levels at various hospitality and entertainment venues of Karachi, Pakistan. Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted at various locations in Karachi, during July 2009. Sampling was performed at 20 enclosed public places, including hospitality (restaurants and caf́es) and entertainment (snooker/billiard clubs and gaming zones) venues. PM2.5 levels were measured using an aerosol monitor. Results: All entertainment venues had higher indoor PM2.5 levels as compared to the immediate outdoors. The indoor PM2.5 levels ranged from 25 to 390 μg/m3 and the outdoor PM2.5 levels ranged from 18 to 96 μg/m3. The overall mean indoor PM2.5 level was 138.8 μg/m3 (±112.8). Among the four types of venues, the highest mean indoor PM2.5 level was reported from snooker/billiard clubs: 264.7 mg/m3 (±85.4) and the lowest from restaurants: 66.4 μg/m3 (±57.6) while the indoor/outdoor ratio ranged from 0.97 to 10.2, highest being at the snooker/billiard clubs. The smoking density ranged from 0.21 to 0.57, highest being at gaming zones. The indoor PM2.5 concentration and smoking density were not significantly correlated (Spearman's correlation coefficient=0.113; p=0.636). Conclusions: This study demonstrates unacceptably high levels of PM2.5 exposure associated with secondhand smoke (SHS) at various entertainment venues of Karachi even after 8 years since the promulgation of smoke-free ordinance (2002) in Pakistan; however, better compliance may be evident at hospitality venues. The results of this study call for effective implementation and enforcement of smoke-free environment at public places in the country.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)460-464
Number of pages5
JournalTobacco Control
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2012


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