Intraoperative hypothermia in patients undergoing Total knee arthroplasty: a cross-sectional study from a developing country

Ronika Devi Ukrani, Aiman Arif, Anum Sadruddin, Obada Hasan, Shahryar Noordin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Intraoperative hypothermia is associated with various risk factors, morbidity, and mortality in patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA), increasing the emotional and financial burden on patients. This study aimed to identify risk factors of intraoperative hypothermia in patients undergoing TKA. Materials and methods: All adult patients (⩾18 years) who underwent TKA from January 2016 to December 2017 at a tertiary-care hospital in Pakistan were included in this retrospective, cross-sectional study. Temperature < 36 °C was defined as hypothermia. Results: The study included 286 patients (77.6% female) with a mean age of 61.4 ± 10.4 years. The overall proportion of intraoperative hypothermia was 26.6%. Of the total patients, 66.1% underwent bilateral TKA whereas 33.9% underwent unilateral TKA. 73.8% of the patients were ASA Level 2. Only 13.3% of patients had postoperative hypothermia. Conclusion: Intraoperative hypothermia was significantly associated with age, bilateral procedure, ASA level and postoperative hypothermia in patients undergoing TKA. The surgeon and the operative team should be aware of the risk factors and the adverse outcomes associated with intraoperative hypothermia, especially in resource constrained settings to plan preventive strategies. Trial registration: This study was retrospectively registered on on 3rd October 2020. The registration ID is NCT04575246.

Original languageEnglish
Article number504
JournalBMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2021


  • Developing country
  • Hypothermia
  • Intraoperative hypothermia
  • SSI
  • Total knee arthroplasty


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