Journey of medication reconciliation compliance in a lower middle-income country: A retrospective chart review

Samar Fatima, Ainan Arshad, Amara Zafar, Sana Farrukh, Anum Rahim, Saharish Nazar, Hasnain Zafar

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Objective There were three main objectives of the study: to determine the overall compliance of medication reconciliation over 4 years in a tertiary care hospital, to compare the medication reconciliation compliance between paper entry (initial assessment forms) and computerised physician order entry (CPOE), and to identify the discrepancies between the medication history taken by the physician at the time of admission and those collected by the pharmacist within 24 hours of admission. Methods This study was conducted at a tertiary care hospital in a lower middle-income country. Data were gathered from two different sources. The first source involved retrospective data obtained from the Quality and Patient Safety Department (QPSD) of the hospital, consisting of records from 8776 patients between 2018 and 2021. The second data source was also retrospective from a quality project initiated by pharmacists at the hospital. Pharmacists collected data from 1105 patients between 2020 and 2021, specifically focusing on medication history and identifying any discrepancies compared with the history documented by physicians. The collected data were then analysed using SPSS V.26. Results The QPSD noted an improvement in physician-led medication reconciliation, with a rise from 32.7% in 2018 to 69.4% in 2021 in CPOE. However, pharmacist-led medication reconciliation identified a 25.4% (n=281/1105) overall discrepancy in the medication history of patients admitted from 2020 to 2021, mainly due to incomplete medication records in the initial assessment forms and CPOE. Physicians missed critical drugs in 4.9% of records; pharmacists identified and updated them. Conclusion In a lower middle-income nation where hiring pharmacists to conduct medication reconciliation would be an additional cost burden for hospitals, encouraging physicians to record medication history more precisely would be a more workable method. However, in situations where cost is not an issue, it is recommended to adopt evidence-based practices, such as integrating clinical pharmacists to lead medication reconciliation, which is the gold standard worldwide.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere002527
JournalBMJ Open Quality
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2 Apr 2024


  • Evidence-Based Practice
  • Healthcare quality improvement
  • Medication reconciliation

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