Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Regarding Menstrual Hygiene among Girls in Ghizer, Gilgit, Pakistan

Sanober Fazal Shah, Neelam Saleem Punjani, Syeda Naghma Rizvi, Sana Sadiq Sheikh, Rafat Jan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Introduction: Menstrual hygiene is a critical issue encountered by women and girls of reproductive age that negatively affects their health and empowerment. It is still deemed a taboo subject in several parts of the world, and girls hesitate to discuss menstruation with their family members, friends, or schoolteachers, which creates hurdles when they experience their menarche. Girls residing in rural areas encounter more problems, since they lack proper resources and knowledge to manage their menstruation in school as well as at home. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding the menstrual hygiene of girls residing in rural areas of Gilgit, Pakistan. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional design was used to assess the study questions. The consecutive sampling technique was applied to recruit 300 female participants from remote areas of Gilgit, Pakistan, who were 13 to 22 years old. A pre-tested questionnaire was utilized to collect the data, and SPSS version 21.0 was used to analyze them. Results: The study found that more than half of the participants had a poor level of knowledge and practices and negative attitudes towards menstrual hygiene. This could be due to many cultural and social factors associated with menstrual hygiene. Conclusions: The study concluded that the study participants were not knowledgeable about menstrual hygiene. They had poor practices and attitudes regarding menstrual hygiene. Hence, it is recommended that frequent sessions should be conducted by healthcare workers to enhance the knowledge of parents, teachers, and young girls, to increase their positive attitudes and practices regarding menstrual hygiene.

Original languageEnglish
Article number6424
JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Issue number14
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2023


  • adolescents
  • attitudes
  • knowledge
  • menstrual hygiene
  • menstruation
  • practices


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