Lifestyle changes and glycemic control in type 1 diabetes mellitus: A trial protocol with factorial design approach

Sobiya Sawani, Amna Rehana Siddiqui, Syed Iqbal Azam, Khadija Humayun, Asma Ahmed, Aysha Habib, Sabahat Naz, Mayera Tufail, Romaina Iqbal

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Type 1 diabetes (T1D) has been increasing globally over the past three decades. Self-monitoring of blood glucose is a challenge in both developed as well as developing countries. Self-management guidelines include maintaining logbooks for blood glucose, physical activity, and dietary intake that affect glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and a multitude of life-threatening acute complications. Innovative, cost-effective interventions along with beneficial lifestyle modifications can improve home-based self-monitoring of blood glucose in T1D patients. The overall objective of this study is to evaluate the relationship between maintaining log books for blood glucose levels, reinforcement by e-messages, and/or daily step count and changes in HbA1c. Methods/design: A randomized controlled trial will enroll participants aged 15 years and above in four groups. Each group of 30 participants will be working with a newly designed standard log book for documenting their blood glucose. The first group will be entirely on routine clinical care, the second group will be on routine care and will receive an additional e-device for recording step count (fit bit), the third group will receive routine care and daily motivational e-messages to maintain the log book, and the fourth group along with routine care will receive an e-device for measuring step count (fit bit) and e-messages about maintaining the log book. Patients will be enrolled from pediatric and endocrine clinics of a tertiary care hospital in Karachi. All groups will be followed up for a period of 6 months to evaluate outcomes. Log book data will be obtained every 3 months electronically or during a patient's clinic visit. HbA1c as a main outcome will be measured at baseline and will be evaluated twice every 3 months. A baseline questionnaire will determine the socio-demographic, nutritional, and physical activity profile of patients. Clinical information for T1D and other co-morbidities for age of onset, duration, complications, hospitalizations, habits for managing T1D, and other lifestyle characteristics will be ascertained. Behavioral modifications for maintaining daily log books as a routine, following e-messages alone, fit bit alone, or e-messages plus using fit bit will be assessed for changes in HbA1c using a generalized estimated equation. Discussion: The proposed interventions will help identify whether maintaining log books for blood glucose, motivational e-messages, and/or daily step count will reduce HbA1c levels. Trial registration:, NCT03864991. March 6, 2019.

Original languageEnglish
Article number346
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 20 Apr 2020


  • HbA1c
  • Log books
  • Self-management
  • Step count
  • Type 1 diabetes


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