Long-Term Mortality in Patients With Severe Hypercholesterolemia Phenotype From a Racial and Ethnically Diverse US Cohort

Jeremy Miles, Andrea Scotti, Francesco Castagna, Toshiki Kuno, Pier Pasquale Leone, Augustin Coisne, Sebastian Ludwig, Carl J. Lavie, Parag H. Joshi, Azeem Latib, Mario J. Garcia, Carlos J. Rodriguez, Michael D. Shapiro, Salim S. Virani, Leandro Slipczuk

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


BACKGROUND: Tools for mortality prediction in patients with the severe hypercholesterolemia phenotype (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol ≥190 mg/dL) are limited and restricted to specific racial and ethnic cohorts. We sought to evaluate the predictors of long-term mortality in a large racially and ethnically diverse US patient cohort with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol ≥190 mg/dL. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of all patients with a low-density lipoprotein cholesterol ≥190 mg/dL seeking care at Montefiore from 2010 through 2020. Patients <18 years of age or with previous malignancy were excluded. The primary end point was all-cause mortality. Analyses were stratified by age, sex, and race and ethnicity. Patients were stratified by primary and secondary prevention. Cox regression analyses were used to adjust for demographic, clinical, and treatment variables. RESULTS: A total of 18 740 patients were included (37% non-Hispanic Black, 30% Hispanic, 12% non-Hispanic White, and 2% non-Hispanic Asian patients). The mean age was 53.9 years, and median follow-up was 5.2 years. Both high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and body mass index extremes were associated with higher mortality in univariate analyses. In adjusted models, higher low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels were associated with an increased 9-year mortality risk (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.08 [95% CI, 1.05–1.11] and 1.04 [95% CI, 1.02–1.06] per 20–mg/ dL increase, respectively). Clinical factors associated with higher mortality included male sex (adjusted HR, 1.31 [95% CI, 1.08–1.58]), older age (adjusted HR, 1.19 per 5-year increase [95% CI, 1.15–1.23]), hypertension (adjusted HR, 2.01 [95% CI, 1.57–2.57]), chronic kidney disease (adjusted HR, 1.68 [95% CI, 1.36–2.09]), diabetes (adjusted HR, 1.79 [95% CI, 1.50–2.15]), heart failure (adjusted HR, 1.51 [95% CI, 1.16–1.95]), myocardial infarction (adjusted HR, 1.41 [95% CI, 1.05–1.90]), and body mass index <20 kg/m2 (adjusted HR, 3.36 [95% CI, 2.29–4.93]). A significant survival benefit was conferred by lipid-lowering therapy (adjusted HR, 0.57 [95% CI, 0.42–0.77]). In the primary prevention group, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol <40 mg/dL was independently associated with higher mortality (adjusted HR, 1.49 [95% CI, 1.06–2.09]). Temporal trend analyses showed a reduction in statin use over time (P<0.001). In the most recent time period (2019–2020), 56% of patients on primary prevention and 85% of those on secondary prevention were on statin therapy. CONCLUSIONS: In a large, diverse cohort of US patients with the severe hypercholesterolemia phenotype, we identified several patient characteristics associated with increased 9-year all-cause mortality and observed a decrease in statin use over time, in particular for primary prevention. Our results support efforts geared toward early recognition and consistent treatment for patients with severe hypercholesterolemia.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)417-426
Number of pages10
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 6 Feb 2024


  • hypercholesterolemia
  • lipids
  • mortality


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