Long term survival and impact of various prognostic factors in T1, T2 oral tongue cancer in Pakistan

Raza Hussain, Arif Jamshed, Hassan Iqbal, Sadaf Usman, Muhammad Irfan, Abu Bakar Hafeez Bhatti

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


Objective: To determine the outcome in patients with early squamous cell carcinoma of oral tongue, and the impact of various prognostic factors on survival. Methods: The retrospective study was conducted at Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Centre, Lahore, Pakistan, and comprised records of patients treated for squamous cell carcinoma of early stage tongue between March 2003 and October 2009. Various factors, including demographics, risk factors, stage, and grade of the tumour were determined. Kaplan Meier curves were plotted to determine the 5-year overall survival, relapse-free survival, local control, regional control, and loco-regional control. Results: A total of 137 patients with early oral tongue tumours were treated. With a median follow-up of 46 months, the overall survival of T1, T2 early tongue tumour was 73% and 64%. The incidence of occult metastasis was 30%. The overall survival for Stage I/II and III/IV was 78% and 50% (p=0.002). Patterns of failures included; local 19 (13%), regional 22 (16%), loco-regional 4 (3%) and distant 5 (4%) respectively. The 5-year local control, regional control, loco-regional control was 86%, 82% and 72%. The only significant predictor of overall survival was clinical and pathological N stage in T1 patients, and surgical procedure, grade, pathological N stage in T2 cases. Conclusions: Treatment of early squamous cell carcinoma of oral tongue effectively achieved local control and disease-free survival. Nodal stage was the most important prognostic factor in terms of survival and recurrence.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)187-193
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2016
Externally publishedYes


  • Early tongue
  • Prognostic factors
  • Squamous cell carcinoma
  • Survival


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