Medical Management of Coronary Artery Disease in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

Jitae A. Kim, Seulgi E. Kim, Karim El Hachem, Hafeez Ul Hassan Virk, Mahboob Alam, Salim S. Virani, Samin Sharma, Andrew House, Chayakrit Krittanawong

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

Chronic kidney disease patients are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease, which is the leading cause of mortality among this population. In addition, chronic kidney disease is a major risk factor for the development of coronary artery disease and is widely regarded as a coronary artery disease risk equivalent. Medical therapy is the cornerstone of coronary artery disease management in the general population. However, there are few trials to guide medical therapy of coronary artery disease in chronic kidney disease, with most data extrapolated from clinical trials of mainly non-chronic kidney disease patients, which were not adequately powered to evaluate this subgroup. There is some evidence to suggest that the efficacy of certain therapies such as aspirin and statins is attenuated with declining estimated glomerular filtration rate, with questionable benefit among end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. Furthermore, chronic kidney disease and ESRD patients are at higher risk of potential side effects with therapy, which may limit their use. In this review, we summarize the available evidence supporting the safety and efficacy of medical therapy of coronary artery disease in chronic kidney disease and ESRD patients. We also discuss the data on new emerging therapies, including PCSK9i, SGLT2i, GLP1 receptor agonists, and nonsteroidal mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists, which show promise at reducing risk of cardiovascular events in the chronic kidney disease population and may offer additional treatment options. Overall, dedicated studies directly evaluating chronic kidney disease patients, particularly those with advanced chronic kidney disease and ESRD, are greatly needed to establish the optimal medical therapy for coronary artery disease and improve outcomes in this vulnerable population.

Original languageEnglish
JournalAmerican Journal of Medicine
DOIs
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2023

Keywords

  • Chronic kidney disease
  • coronary artery disease
  • stage renal disease

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