Background: Optimal medical therapy is endorsed by national guidelines in the management of ischemic heart disease; however, few studies have examined its long-term utilization following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and association with clinical outcomes. We sought to assess longitudinal trends in medical therapy use after PCI and its prognostic significance. Methods and Results: From the Veteran Affairs Clinical Assessment, Reporting, and Tracking System Program, we retrospectively identified 57 900 Veteran's Affairs patients undergoing PCI from January 2005 to May 2014. Using prescription fill dates, the utilization of 4 classes of medical therapy including statins, β-blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers, P2Y12 inhibitors, and their composites were assessed at discharge, 6 months, 1, 3, and 5 years post-PCI. Multivariable Cox regression models were developed to assess the association between medical therapy status and major adverse cardiovascular events, defined as all-cause mortality, rehospitalization for myocardial infarction, rehospitalization for stroke, or repeat revascularization. At discharge following PCI, 58.3% of patients received all 4 classes of medical therapy. Utilization of statins, β-blockers, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers decreased from 89%, 84.9%, and 72.2% on discharge, respectively, to 72.7%, 67.9%, and 57.9% at 5 years. Prescription refills of P2Y12 inhibitors declined from 96.5% on discharge to 28.3% at 5 years, driven by a large decline in P2Y12 inhibitor use after 1 year. Use of each class of medical therapy, and its composite use, was associated with a significant reduction in major adverse cardiovascular events at 5 years, with the largest effect size seen by the use of statins (HR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.75-0.79; P<0.0001) and P2Y12 inhibitors (HR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.79-0.85; P<0.0001). Conclusions: Consistent declines in medical therapy use following PCI were observed over time, which is associated with worse outcomes. Further efforts are needed to promote long-term adherence to secondary prevention therapies after revascularization.
- acute coronary syndrome
- myocardial infarction
- percutaneous coronary intervention