Introduction: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD; E.C. 220.127.116.11) deficiency is the commonest inborn error of metabolism with more than 140 genetic variants. The incidence of G6PD deficiency is 2-9% in Pakistan, but G6PD variants were never studied comprehensively. We therefore designed this study to describe the frequency of G6PD variants and their associated enzyme activities in Pakistan. Methods: Patients diagnosed with G6PD deficiency were enrolled. RFLP-PCR was utilized to identify common mutations previously reported from Asian countries. Where mutational analysis failed, amplification of 9-12 exons with subsequent gene sequencing was performed. G6PD enzyme activity was assessed through the quantitative enzyme assay. Results: Two hundred and seventy-six G6PD-deficient subjects (237 male and 39 women) were investigated. G6PD Mediterranean (563C-T) was the most common genetic variant (n=216 or 78%). G6PD Chatham (1003A-G) and G6PD Orissa (131C-G) were observed in 14 (5%) and two (0.7%) subjects respectively. A novel mutation 973 G-A with a predicated amino acid change of asp325asn was identified in exon 9. This was named G6PD Karachi after the place of origin of proband. Polymorphism in position 1311C/T was uniformly observed with all variants. Forty-three or 17% of DNA samples remained uncharacterized. Very low levels of G6PD enzyme activity was observed with 563C-T mutation. Conclusion: We concluded that 563C-T was the commonest G6PD variant, while 1003A-G and 131C-G were less-frequent genetic variants of G6PD in Pakistani population. A novel genetic variant 973G-A was also identified. Very low levels of G6PD enzyme activity was seen with G6PD 563C-T. Mutational analysis failed in a significant proportion of samples warranting further work.
- G6PD Deficiency
- G6PD variants