Musculoskeletal manifestations in Alkaptonuria A cross-sectional study

Aysha Habib Khan, Bushra Afroze, Hafsa Majid, Yusra Zaidi, Azeema Jamil, Lena Jafri

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


This study aimed to determine the patient characteristics and clinical presentation of Alkaptonuria cases reported by the Biochemical Genetics Lab. An observational study was conducted at the Biochemical Genetics Lab. Alkaptonuria patients were diagnosed based on the homogentisic acid peak in urine and their demographics and clinical data collected from to 2013 to 2019. Clinical history related to joint diseases, ochronotic presentation, and urine darkening on standing was collected. During 7 years, 21 Alkaptonuria cases were reported from BGL; mean age 19.4 ± 24.5 years (range 0.2–66 years) and male to female ratio of 2:1. Of the total, only 9 were adults (mean age, 44 ± 12 years). Most adult patients had musculoskeletal involvement, with joint pain (n = 9) and ochronotic pigmentation (n = 6), whereas all patients presented with a history of urine darkening on standing (21/21 cases). The high prevalence of musculoskeletal involvement observed in patients with albuminuria is likely to be missed by physicians unless specifically tested for in such cases.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)E28241
JournalMedicine (United States)
Issue number51
Publication statusPublished - 23 Dec 2021


  • Alkaptonuria
  • Homogentisic acid
  • Musculoskeletal
  • Pakistan


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