Nitrogen stimulates phenological traits, growth and growing degree days of maize

Hafiz Mohkum Hammad, Ashfaq Ahmad, Wajid Farhad, Farhat Abbas, Khalifa Qasim, Shafqat Saeed

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12 Citations (Scopus)


Field experiments were conducted during 2009 and 2010 to evaluate the effects of nitrogen (N) application timings and rates on phenology of autumn sown maize under semi-arid climatic conditions of Faisalabad, Pakistan. Plant development, growth and yield components were optimized by the N application in three splits; 1/3rd N at V2, 1/3rd N at V16 and 1/3rd N at R1 stages at the rate of 250 kg ha-1. At this rate, the crop achieved more calendar days and thermal time in each growth stage. The treatments T2 (1/3rd N at V2 stage, 1/3rd N at V16 stage and 1/3rd N at R1 stage) and N4 (250 kg N ha-1) accumulated the maximum days to silking and maturity (51 and 102 days, respectively), which resulted in the maximum crop growth rate and grain yield (8.38 t ha-1). The highest net benefit and marginal rate of return ($1857 and 22%, respectively) were achieved by N4 treatment. Therefore, 250 kg N ha-1 with three above mentioned splits of N application may produce optimum grain yield of maize under semi-arid environmental and agricultural conditions similar to those of the reported experiments.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)337-343
Number of pages7
JournalPakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2013
Externally publishedYes


  • Crop phenology
  • Economic and marginal analysis
  • Maize growth and yield
  • Nitrogen


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