Organic farming in wheat crop under arid condition of Pakistan

Hafiz Mohkum Hammad, Ashfaq Ahmad, Khalifa Qasim Laghari, Farhat Abbas, Wajid Nasim, Wajid Farhad, Ali Hafeez Malik

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14 Citations (Scopus)


Worldwide demand of organic product is increasing; Pakistani farmer's awareness is also increasing towards organic farming due to high cost of synthetic fertilizers and demand of organic food. This study aimed at examining organic farming in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). A wheat cultivar Fareed-2006 was planted on November 20, 2007 at Adoptive Research Farm Karor, Layyah. Organic manures from five different sources viz. green manure (GM), farm yard manure (FYM), poultry litter (PL), press mud (PM) and sewage sludge (SS) each at the rate of 20 ton ha-1 were used in the experiment. Seven treatments were established having one control and one with recommended NPK. Recommended NPK gave maximum productive tillers (274.8), number of grains per spike (52.10), biological yield (9.61 ha-1) and economic yield (3.84 t ha-1) while minimum was observed in control. The same treatment (recommended NPK) gave maximum net benefit ($1189.85 ha-1), however in marginal analysis SS at the rate of 20 ton ha-1 gave maximum marginal rate (1139.98.20%) of return while recommended NPK gave minimum (225.91%) marginal than organic farming due to high cost of input.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)97-102
Number of pages6
JournalPakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2011
Externally publishedYes


  • Economic and marginal analysis
  • Organic farming
  • Sources of organic manures
  • Wheat


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