Patient reported outcomes 6 to 12 months after interpersonal violence: A multicenter cohort study

Manuel Castillo-Angeles, Juan P. Herrera-Escobar, Alexander Toppo, Sabrina E. Sanchez, Haytham M. Kaafarani, Ali Salim, Adil H. Haider, Deepika Nehra

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


PURPOSE Violence continues to be a significant public health burden, but little is known about the long-term outcomes of these patients. Our goal was to determine the impact of violence-related trauma on long-term functional and psychosocial outcomes. METHODS We identified trauma patients with moderate to severe injuries (Injury Severity Score, ≥9) treated at one of three level 1 trauma centers. These patients were asked to complete a survey over the phone between 6 and 12 months after injury evaluating both functional and psychosocial outcomes (12-item Short Form Survey, Trauma Quality of Life, posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD] screen, chronic pain, return to work). Patients were classified as having suffered a violent injury if the mechanism of injury was a stab, gunshot, or assault. Self-inflicted wounds were excluded. Adjusted logistic regression models were built to determine the association between a violent mechanism of injury and long-term outcomes. RESULTS A total of 1,050 moderate to severely injured patients were successfully followed, of whom 176 (16.8%) were victims of violence. For the victims of violence, mean age was 34.4 years (SD, 12.5 years), 85% were male, and 57.5% were Black; 30.7% reported newly needing help with at least one activity of daily living after the violence-related event. Fifty-nine (49.2%) of 120 patients who were working before their injury had not yet returned to work; 47.1% screened positive for PTSD, and 52.3% reported chronic pain. On multivariate analysis, a violent mechanism was significantly associated with PTSD (odds ratio, 2.57; 95% confidence interval, 1.59-4.17; p < 0.001) but not associated with chronic pain, return to work, or functional outcomes. CONCLUSION The physical and mental health burden after violence-related trauma is not insignificant. Further work is needed to identify intervention strategies and social support systems that may be beneficial to reduce this burden. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE Prognostic and epidemiological, level III.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)260-264
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • Functional outcomes
  • PTSD
  • Return to work
  • Trauma
  • Violence


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