Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is one of the most common perinatal infections. A primary maternal infection is usually asymptomatic and will lead to a congenital infection in about 30% of the cases. If recurrent CMV infection develops during pregnancy, the risk of a congenital infection is very low. When seroconversion during pregnancy is proven, the isolation and identification of the virus in the amniotic fluid by PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) may yield more information about the likelihood of a congenital infection of the fetus. There should be at least a time lapse of 6 weeks between the maternal infection and the prenatal diagnosis. Fetal blood sampling could procure additional information but is not routinely used. Screening for CMV infection during pregnancy remains controversial. It seems more effective to identify high-risk groups and to prevent transmission of CMV by an effective hygiene. Treatment of congenital CMV infection is only described in symptomatic babies. Further studies, however, are needed to determine the duration and doses of the therapy.