Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in diabetics: diagnosis and management- a narrative review

Zia Ur Rehman, Nanik Ram

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in diabetic patients is often overlooked due to associated neuropathy. The very first presentation of these patients is with an Ischaemic ulcer or toe gangrene. Diabetics have a very high amputation rate compared to non-diabetic patients due to diffuse multi-segmental disease in the calcified tibial arteries. Early detection of the condition is a challenge in these patients. Even ankle-brachial pressure index may not be reliable. Both surgical and endovascular options are effective in wound healing. Endovascular techniques include percutaneous transluminal angioplasty with and without stenting, sub-intimal angioplasty, percutaneous transluminal angioplasty with drug-coated balloons, covered stents, and use of atherectomy devices. The current narrative review was planned to discuss the essentials of diagnosing PAD in diabetic patients and its various treatment options.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)621-626
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2023


  • Diabetic foot
  • Foot ulcer
  • PAD
  • Peripheral vascular disease


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