Phytoextraction of lead using a hedge plant [alternanthera bettzickiana (Regel) G. Nicholson]: Physiological and biochemical alterations through bioresource management

Urooj Kanwal, Muhammad Ibrahim, Farhat Abbas, Muhammad Yamin, Fariha Jabeen, Anam Shahzadi, Aitazaz A. Farooque, Muhammad Imtiaz, Allah Ditta, Shafaqat Ali

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Phytoremediation is a cost-effective and environmentally friendly approach that can be used for the remediation of metals in polluted soil. This study used a hedge plant-calico (Alternanthera bettzickiana (Regel) G. Nicholson) to determine the role of citric acid in lead (Pb) phytoremediation by exposing it to different concentrations of Pb (0, 200, 500, and 1000 mg kg-1) as well as in a combination with citric acid concentration (0, 250, 500 µM). The analysis of variance was applied on results for significant effects of the independent variables on the dependent variables using SPSS (ver10). According to the results, maximum Pb concentration was measured in the upper parts of the plant. An increase in dry weight biomass, plant growth parameters, and photosynthetic contents was observed with the increase of Pb application (200 mg kg-1) in soil while a reduced growth was experienced at higher Pb concentration (1000 mg kg-1). The antioxidant enzymatic activities like superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) were enhanced under lower Pb concentration (200, 500 mg kg-1), whereas the reduction occurred at greater metal concentration Pb (1000 mg kg-1). There was a usual reduction in electrolyte leakage (EL) at lower Pb concentration (200, 500 mg kg-1), whereas EL increased at maximum Pb concentration (1000 mg kg-1). We concluded that this hedge plant, A. Bettzickiana, has the greater ability to remediate polluted soils aided with citric acid application.

Original languageEnglish
Article number5074
JournalSustainability
Volume13
Issue number9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2021
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Alternanthera bettzickiana
  • Antioxidants
  • Citric acid
  • Lead
  • Phytoremediation

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