Prevalence of placental malaria in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1-infected and -uninfected women and the effect of placental malaria on genital shedding and perinatal transmission of HIV-1 were examined. Genital samples for HIV-1 DNA RNA were collected during labor. Infants were tested for HIV-1 at 1 day and 6 weeks postpartum. Placental malaria was diagnosed by histopathological examination: 372 placentas of HIV-1-infected women and 277 of HIV-1-uninfected women were processed. A higher prevalence of placental malaria was seen in HIV-1-infected women. No association was found between placental malaria and either maternal virus load, genital HIV-1 DNA, or HIV-1 RNA. Placental malaria did not correlate with in utero or peripartal transmission of HIV-1.