Alterations in platelet function are a common finding in surgical procedures involving cardiopulmonary bypass and hypothermia. Although the combined impact of hypothermia and artificial circulation on platelets has been studied before, the ultimate strategy to safely minimize the risk for bleeding and thrombosis is yet unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of a mock circulation loop to study the impact of hypothermia for platelet-related hemostatic changes. Venous blood was collected from healthy adult humans (n=3). Closed mock circulation loops were assembled, each consisting of a centrifugal pump, an oxygenator with integrated heat exchanger, and a hardshell venous reservoir. The experiment started with the mock circulation temperature set at 37°C (T0 [0h]). Cooling was then initiated at T1 (+2h), where temperature was adjusted from 37°C to 32°C. Hypothermia was maintained from T2 (+4h) to T3 (+28h). From that point in time, rewarming from 32°C to 37°C was initiated with similar speed as cooling. From time point T4 (+30h), normothermia (37°C) was maintained until the experiment ended at T5 (+32h). Blood samples were analyzed in standard hematological tests: light transmission aggregometry (LTA) (arachidonic acid [AA], adenosine diphosphate [ADP], collagen [COL], thrombin-receptor-activating-peptide-14 [TRAP]), multiple electrode aggregometry (MEA) (AA, ADP, COL, TRAP), and rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) (EXTEM, FIBTEM, PLTEM). Hemoglobin, hematocrit, and platelet count decrease more substantially during temperature drop (37-32°C) than during hypothermia maintenance. Hb and Hct continue to follow this trend during active rewarming (32-37°C). PC increase from the moment active rewarming was initiated. None of the values return to the initial values. LTA values demonstrate a similar decrease in aggregation after stimulation with the platelet agonists between the start of the mock circulation and the start of cooling. Except for platelet stimulation using COL, this trend continues during temperature drop from 37°C to 32°C. LTA values using AA and TRAP demonstrate a considerable decline in platelet function throughout the experiment that was most pronounced after 24h of circulation at 32°C. LTA values using ADP and COL further decline after rewarming. MEA ADP, ASPI, and COL identify platelet dysfunction patterns analogous with LTA, between the start of the mock circulation and the start of cooling. Except for MEA TRAP, this trend continues during temperature drop from 37°C to 32°C. MEA ASPI and ADP demonstrate a considerable decline in platelet function throughout the experiment, which was most pronounced after 24h of circulation at 32°C. For MEA COL and TRAP, further decline in platelet function is observed after rewarming. This study quantitatively assessed the effect of temperature changes on platelet function during experimental mock circulation demonstrating a considerable decline in platelet function during hypothermia without uniform recovery of platelet function observed after rewarming.
- Cardiopulmonary bypass
- Platelet function