Post-COVID-19 sequelae of the respiratory system. A single-centre experience reporting the compromise of the airway, alveolar and vascular components

Nousheen Iqbal, Iffat Khanum, Muhammad Ali Ibrahim Kazi, Syeda Urooj Riaz, Uzzam Ahmed Khawaja, Safia Awan, Muhammad Irfan, Ali Bin Sarwar Zubairi, Javaid Ahmed Khan

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2 Citations (Scopus)


The long-term sequelae of COVID-19 have now become more common and appreciable. The SARS-CoV-2 virus can cause a variety of infectious and non-infectious pulmonary complications. The purpose of this study is to raise awareness about post-COVID-19 pulmonary sequelae, both infectious and non-infectious, in this geographical area. A retrospective study was conducted from July 1st 2020 to December 20th 2020. A total of 1200 patients were evaluated, with 83 suffering from post-COVID-19 pulmonary complications. The patients' mean age was 62 years (IQR 55-69), with 63 (75.9%) being male. The most common co-morbid illnesses were hypertension (49, 59%) and diabetes (45, 54.2%). The majority of them (37, 44.6%) had severe COVID-19, followed by critical COVID-19 (33, 39.8%). There was no statistically significant difference in recurrence of respiratory symptoms or duration of current illness between non-severe, severe, and critical COVID-19 patients. Non-infectious complications were observed in the majority of patients (n=76, 91.5%), including organizing pneumonia/ground glass opacities in 71 (88%) patients, fibrosis in 44 (55%), pulmonary embolism in 10 (12.5%), pneumomediastinum in 6 (7.4%) and pneumothorax in 7 (8.6%). Infective complications (25, 30.1%) included aspergillus infection in 10 (12.0%) and bacterial infection in 5 (8.47%), with more gram-negative infections and one patient developing Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Post-COVID-19 mortality was 11 (13.3%). The long-term pulmonary sequelae of COVID-19 are not rare. Cryptogenic organizing pneumonia, ground glass opacities, and fibrosis were common post-COVID-19 sequelae in our patients. This necessitates frequent close monitoring of these patients in order to initiate early appropriate management and prevent further morbidity and eventual mortality.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2412
JournalMonaldi Archives for Chest Disease
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2023


  • infective
  • non-infective
  • post COVID-19 complications
  • pulmonary involvement


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