Raman spectroscopy has been used to identify the biochemical changes associatedwith the presence of the Hepatitis C virus (HCV) in infected human blood plasma samples as compared with healthy samples, as control. The aim of the study was to establish the Raman spectralmarkers of hepatitis infection, which could be used for diagnostic purposes. Moreover, multivariate data analysis techniques, including Principal Component Analysis (PCA), coupled with Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA), and Partial Least Square Regression (PLSR) are employed to further demonstrate the diagnostic capability of the technique. The PLSR model is developed to predict the viral loads of the HCV infected plasma on the basis of the biochemical changes caused by the viral infection. Specific Raman spectral features are observed in themean spectra of HCV plasma samples which are not observed in the control mean spectra. PCA differentiated the ‘normal’ and ‘HCV’ groups of the Raman spectra and PCA-LDA was employed to increase the efficiency of prediction of the presence of HCV infection, resulting in a sensitivity and specificity 98.8% and 98.6%, with corresponding Positive Predictive Value of 99.2%, and Negative Predictive Value of 98%. PLSR modelling was found to be 99% accurate in predicting the actual viral loads of the HCV samples, as determined clinically using the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technique, on the basis of the Raman spectral changes caused by the virus during the process of the development of Hepatitis C.
- Blood plasma
- Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infection
- Partial least squares regression
- Principal components analysis
- Raman spectroscopy