One limitation of current biochemical or histologic analysis of advanced prostate cancer (PC; T3AT4 ± Nx M x) is the ability to identify on first diagnostic biopsy patients who will make a durable response to hormone ablation therapy. The aim of this study was to assess the predictive value (sustained response to hormonal therapy and clinical outcome (relapse-free and overall survival)) of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) and the androgen receptor (AR) immunoexpression in the presenting biopsy. Analysis was performed on 47 samples (10 cases of benign prostatic hyperplasia and 37 hormone-naive PCs). Patients selected represented two stages in the natural history of PC: The "clinical metastatic androgen- responsive" (androgen-dependent PC, ADPC) and the "clinical metastatic androgen - resistant" (androgen-independent PC, AIPC). Reduced immunoreactivity (IR) of either or both PTEN/AR in the initial hormone-naive PC samples was observed with increased frequency in AlPCs. In the ADPC group, low PTEN and/or AR-IR was associated with a shorter median relapse-free survival, i.e., at 30 months after surgery, the probability of relapse-free survival for high expressors of PTEN and AR was 85.7% (SEM = 9.3) compared with only 16.6% (SEM = 15.2) in low expressors. At 36 months, only 28.5% (SEM = 9.3) of ADPC high expressors had experienced a biochemical relapse compared with 100% of low expressors (hazard ratio, 4.6; 95% confidence interval, 4.7-146.8). Further studies analyzing the coexpression of PTEN and AR should be undertaken to validate this pilot study and the utility of these biomarkers in routine histopathologic workup of patients with PC.