National estimates describing the overall prevalence of and disparities in influenza vaccination among patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) in United States are not well described. Therefore, we analyzed the prevalence of influenza vaccination among adults with DM, overall and by sociodemographic characteristics, using the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey database from 2008 to 2016. Associations between sociodemographic factors and lack of vaccination were examined using adjusted logistic regression. Among adults with DM, 36% lacked influenza vaccination. Independent predictors of lacking influenza vaccination included age 18 to 39 years (odds ratio [OR] 2.54; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.14-3.00), Black race/ethnicity (OR 1.29; 95% CI, 1.14-1.46), uninsured status (OR 1.88; 95% CI, 1.59-2.21), and no usual source of care (OR 1.61; 95% CI, 1.39-1.85). Nearly 64% individuals with ≥ 4 higher-risk sociodemographic characteristics lacked influenza vaccination (OR 3.50; 95% CI 2.79-4.39). One-third of adults with DM in the United States lack influenza vaccination, with younger age, Black race, and lower socioeconomic status serving as strong predictors. These findings highlight the continued need for focused public health interventions to increase vaccine coverage and utilization among disadvantaged communities.