Prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms and their association with multimorbidity and demographic factors: a community-based, cross-sectional survey in Karachi, Pakistan

Salima Farooq, Tahir Khan, Sidra Zaheer, Kashif Shafique

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

18 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objective This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms and their association with multimorbidity and the demographic characteristics of adults aged 30 years and above in Karachi, Pakistan. Design Observational cross-sectional study. Study setting and participants The study was carried out among a general population aged 30 years and above residing in the Gulshan-e-Iqbal town of Karachi, Pakistan. The study participants were recruited using the systematic random sampling approach based on the inclusion criteria. The data collected from 2867 participants were analysed. Main outcome measures The primary outcome of the study was the prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms, measured with the Aga Khan University Anxiety Depression Scale. The secondary outcome was the association of anxiety and depressive symptoms with multimorbidity as well as with the sociodemographic characteristics of the participants, using binary logistic regression. Results Out of 2867 individuals, 27.4% reported having anxiety and depressive symptoms. The multivariate logistic regression model revealed that the presence of multimorbidity (adjusted OR (AOR)=1.33, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.58), female gender (AOR=2.40, 95% CI 2.01 to 2.87), illiteracy (AOR=1.51, 95% CI 1.09 to 2.07), more children (AOR=0.74, 95% CI 0.59 to 0.93) and visiting a faith healer (AOR=2.29, 95% CI 1.82 to 2.88) were the significant factors associated with anxiety and depressive symptoms. Conclusion This study revealed a moderately high prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms among adults aged 30 years and above in Karachi, Pakistan. The key variables associated with anxiety and depressive symptoms were multimorbidity, female gender, lower level of education, more children and visiting faith healers.

Original languageEnglish
Article number029315
JournalBMJ Open
Volume9
Issue number11
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2019

Keywords

  • adult health
  • anxiety and depression
  • multi-morbidity

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