Prevalence of seizures in children infected with human immunodeficiency virus

Pauline Samia, Reneva Petersen, Kathleen G. Walker, Brian Eley, Jo M. Wilmshurst

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

28 Citations (Scopus)


A retrospective study of 354 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients identified a subgroup of 27 children with seizures (7.6%, 95% confidence interval: 5.1%-10.9%). Of the total group, 13% (n = 46) had identifiable neurologic deficits and 30% (n = 107) had developmental delay. Both observations were significantly more frequent in the subgroup of patients with seizures (P <.001). The median age of patients with seizures was 20 months (range, 8-87 months) and the median baseline CD4 percentage was 13.5% (interquartile range, 8%-23%). Seizures were treated with sodium valproate (n = 11), phenobarbital (n = 3), diazepam (n = 2), lamotrigine (n = 1), and carbamazepine (n = 1). Combination therapy was required for 5 children. Suboptimal valproic acid levels were recorded for 3 patients. When resources are available, antiepileptic drug level monitoring is advised for children who require both antiepileptic and antiretroviral medications to facilitate optimal seizure management.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)297-302
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Child Neurology
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2013
Externally publishedYes


  • HIV
  • antiepileptic drugs
  • antiretroviral
  • developmental delay
  • immunodeficiency
  • seizures


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