Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among batswana adults in urban and semi-urban gaborone

Dawn Tladi, Lucky Mokgatlhe, Theo Nell, Sheila Shaibu, Ronel Mitchell, Comfort Mokgothu, Tebogo Gabonthone, Omphile Hubona

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose: The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is on the rise in Sub-Saharan Africa, attributed to increased and uncontrollable urbanization accompanied by its lifestyle changes. Non-communicable diseases, such as hypertension, diabetes, and obesity, which are components of the (MetS) are also on the increase in Botswana. To date, no study has determined the prevalence of the MetS in the apparently healthy Batswana adults. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of the MetS among the 25–65-year-old Batswana residing in urban and neighboring semi-urban areas of Gaborone. Participants and Methods: A cross-sectional study was used to collect data from N=794 participants, n=383 men and n=411 women, residing in Gaborone and two surrounding semi-urban areas. Data collected included demographic, anthropometric measurements, blood pressure (BP), blood glucose, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and total cholesterol. Results: A high prevalence of 26.8% was reported, with women mostly afflicted (35.0% vs 18.0%). The MetS risk factors found to be common in women were low HDL-C at (50% vs 48.7%) compared to men, while proportions with elevated BP (50.3% vs 39.4%) were prominent in men. The prevalence increased with age, with the oldest age group showing a higher prevalence in both women and men, respectively (55–65 years; 38.5% vs 41.2%). Conclusion: An unprecedented high MetS prevalence was revealed among perceived to be healthy Batswana adults, with women at a higher risk. This public health concern creates an opportunity to establish evidence of risk factors, develop guidelines and strategies with appropriate public health measures to prevent and control the MetS.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2505-2514
Number of pages10
JournalDiabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • Abdominal obesity
  • Age
  • Blood pressure
  • HDL-C
  • Public health


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