Primary drug resistance to anti-tuberculous drugs in Karachi

Arshad Javaid, Nadim Rizvi, Mosavir Ansari, Ashraf Sadiq, Iqbal Sher Burki, Nadeem Ur Rehman, Rumina Hasan, Afia Zafar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Objective: To assess the frequency of primary drug resistance among newly diagnosed tuberculosis cases in Karachi. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Multicentric study involving various TB clinics and treatment centres of Karachi between April to December 2005. Methodology: The frequency of drug resistance among new TB patients was evaluated using a non-probability convenient sampling methodology. Sputum sample was obtained from 140 newly diagnosed sputum smear-positive patients of pulmonary tuberculosis from various centres of Karachi. Sensitivities were performed by proportion method. Results: Fifteen (11.5%) samples in 130 eligible patients showed primary resistance to one or more drugs. Ten (7.6%) of the isolates tested were resistant to a single drug, none were resistant to 2 drugs, 4 (3.0%) to 3 drugs and 1 (0.76%) to 4 drugs while 1 (0.76%) to all 5 first line agents. Resistance to streptomycin (10 ug/ml) was seen in 8 (6.1%), isoniazid (1ug/ml) in 12 (9.2%), Rifampicin (5 ug/ml) in 4 (3.0%), ethambutol (10 ug/ml) in 1 (0.76%) and pyrazinamide in 6 (4.6%) samples. Primary Multi-Drug Resistance (PMDR) was found in 2 (1.5%) patients. (Isoniazid 1 ug/ml, rifampicin 5 ug/ml with or without other drugs). Conclusion: In the studied patients, primary drug resistance to at least one anti-tuberculosis drug was 11.5%. It requires an efficiently working anti-tuberculosis programme to prevent escalation including resistance.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)699-702
Number of pages4
JournalJournal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons--Pakistan : JCPSP
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2008


  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB)
  • Primary drug resistance
  • Pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB)


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