Objective: Mental health issues are closely associated with symptoms and outcomes of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). The magnitude of this problem is alarmingly high in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to examine the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions on mental health outcomes among patients with CVDs living in LMICs. Methods: This review includes Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-experimental studies conducted on adult patients who had a CVD and/or hypertension and located in LMICs. Studies published in English between 2010 and March, 2021 and which primarily reported mental health outcomes of resilience, self-efficacy, Quality of life (QoL), depression and anxiety were included. Studies were screened, extracted and critically appraised by two independent reviewers. Meta-analysis was conducted for RCTs and narrative summaries were conducted for all other studies. PRISMA guidelines were followed for reporting review methods and findings. Results: 109 studies included in this review reported educational, nursing, behavioral and psychological, spiritual, relaxation, and mindfulness interventions provided by multidisciplinary teams. 14 studies reported self-efficacy, 70 reported QoL, 62 reported one or both of anxiety and depression, and no study was found that reported resilience as an outcome in this population. Pooled analysis showed improvements in self-efficacy and QoL outcomes. The majority of studies showed improvement in outcomes, though the quality of the included studies varied. Conclusion: Patients with CVDs in LMICs may experience improved mental health through the use of diverse psychosocial interventions. Evaluations are needed to investigate whether the impact of interventions on mental health are sustained over time.
- Cardiovascular diseases
- Low and middle-income countries
- Mental health
- Psychosocial interventions
- Systematic review