RAPNO efforts in Brain Tumour Outcomes

Qurat Ul Ain Virani, Zanib Javed, Muhammad Shahzad Shamim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Assessing treatment efficacy for brain tumours has evolved since its inception with the introduction of MacDonald's criteria, which pioneered the utility of imaging to determine an objective and quantifiable response to treatment. This criterion failed to distinguish pseudo response or progression from progression and did not account for non-enhancing disease therefore; the response assessment in neuro-oncology (RANO) working group was established to account for these limitations. Since, its commencement it has worked to determine response assessment for multiple tumours. As paediatric tumours exhibit heterogeneous and variable-enhancing characteristics, the response assessment in paediatric neuro-oncology (RAPNO) working group was formed to create separate criteria. Six response criteria have been published to date, and the article summarizes them.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1005-1006
Number of pages2
JournalJournal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - May 2024


  • neuro-oncology
  • response assessment


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