Review of current literature on gestational trophoblastic neoplasia

Mehwish Shahzadi, Saqib Raza Khan, Muhammad Tariq, Sehrish Sarwar Baloch, Aisha Shahid, Munira Moosajee, Zarka Samon

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Background: Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasia (GTN) is a disease of the reproductive age group with an incidence rate of <1% among all tumors involving the female reproductive tract. It occurs because of aberrant fertilization. Patients are diagnosed early because of aggravated symptoms during pregnancy. Moreover, patients also bleed from the tumor sites, which leads to early presentation. A cure rate of 100% can be achieved with adequate treatment. Main body: In this literature review, the authors have brought to attention the risk factors, classification, and various treatment options in GTN patients according to their stratification as per the WHO scoring system. Patients are categorized into low and high risk based on the FIGO scoring system. Patients with low risk are treated with single-agent methotrexate or actinomycin-D. Despite the superiority of actinomycin-D in terms of efficacy, methotrexate remains the first choice of therapy in low-risk patients due to its better toxicity profile. Multi-agent chemotherapy with etoposide, methotrexate, actinomycin-D, cyclophosphamide and vincristine (EMA-CO) leads to complete remission in 93% of high-risk GTN patients. Around 40% of patients with incomplete responses are salvaged with platinum-based multi-agent chemotherapy. Isolated chemo-resistant clones can be salvaged with surgical interventions. Conclusion: The mortality in patients with GTN has significantly reduced over time. With adequate multi-disciplinary support, patients with GTN can ultimately be cured and can spend every day healthy reproductive life.

Original languageEnglish
Article number37
JournalJournal of the Egyptian National Cancer Institute
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2023


  • Bleeding
  • chemo-resistant clone
  • fertilization
  • methotrexate


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